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European Election Studies , EES

    For details on all aspects of this database, see EES

1. General description

    The European Election Studies (EES) are a large-scale, European cross-national, longitudinal survey research programme. The study monitors attitudes, beliefs and values regarding electoral participation and voting behaviour in European Parliament elections as well as perceptions and beliefs with respect to the political dimension of the EU in general. Starting from 1979, the survey has been carried out every five years, immediately after the European Parliament elections. This database comprises only the voter study, which is the central part of the EES. Additional studies are the Euromanifesto Project, the Elite Study and the Media Study.

2. Survey type

  • Cross-national
  • Cross-sectional, with various longitudinal questions (waves in 1979, 1989, 1994, 1999, 2004, 2009 and 2014). For the 1984 European Parliament elections, the ESS voter study has not been carried out. For this reason, the 1984 wave will not be discussed here in detail. Data regarding the 1984 elections are available as part of two Eurobarometer studies. For more information, see GESIS 21 and GESIS 22.
  • Representative national samples,  15 years of age
  • Single core questionnaire, no varying modules. The extent and content of the questionnaire differs slightly per wave.

3. Participating countries

  • The 1979 wave: EU-9
  • All countries: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Great Britain 
  • The 1989 wave: EU-12
  • All countries: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom, Great Britain
  • The 1994 wave: EU-12
  • All countries: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Great Britain, Northern Ireland
  • The 1999 wave: EU-15
  • All countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom
  • The 2004 wave: 24 EU member states (Malta not included) 
  • All countries: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, Great Britain, Northern Ireland
  • The 2009 wave: EU-27
  • All countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithouania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom
  • The 2014 wave: EU-28
  • All countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithouania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, Croatia

4. Topics

a. Socio-demographics

  • Respondent: Age, sex, education, work and employment, marital status, socio-economic status, national region, community size, left-right placement, voting behaviour
  • Partner:
  • Parents:
  • Children:
  • Household: Composition, income

b. General

  • Economic integration: e.g. effects of European Currency Unit (ECU) on EU member states, effects of European Single Market on EU member states
  • European elections campaigns: e.g. awareness of campaigns, campaign issues, sources of information
  • European Union: e.g. unification of Europe, European citizenship, membership of European Union
  • European Parliament: e.g. amount of power, attention of EP regarding various policy areas, future effects of EP
  • Interest in and satisfaction with politics: e.g. interest in EU politics, satisfaction with democracy
  • National Parliaments: e.g. amount of power, attention of National Parliaments regarding various policy areas, future effects of National Parliaments
  • Political issues: e.g. national currency vs common European currency, single European market, most competent party, removing national borders, decision-making at regional, national or European level, women's movements, environmental movements
  • Trust in institutions: e.g. trust in European Court, trust in the European Commission, trust in European Parliament
  • Voting behaviour: e.g. reasons for not voting, vote based on domestic or European issues, party attachment, issue which influences your vote most

c. Regarding work and welfare

    Economic situation in country, job entitlement, job opportunities in country, life satisfaction, making ends meet, tolerance, welfare entitlement

5. Questionnaires available

  • 1979 wave downloadable in PDF format; from EES
  • 1989 wave downloadable in PDF format; from EES
  • 1994 wave downloadable in PDF format; from EES
  • 1999 wave downloadable in PDF format; from EES
  • 2004 wave downloadable in PDF format; from EES
  • 2009 wave downloadable in PDF format; from EES
  • 2014 wave downloadable in PDF format; from EES

6. Keyword search in questionnaires

    No

7. Data available

  • 1979 wave: dataset downloadable in SPSS and STATA; from GESIS
  • 1989 wave: dataset downloadable in SPSS and STATA; format from GESIS
  • 1994 wave: dataset downloadable in SPSS and STATA; format from GESIS
  • 1999 wave: dataset downloadable in DAT format; from DANS
  • 2004 wave: dataset downloadable in SPSS and STATA; from GESIS
  • 2009 wave: dataset downloadable in SPSS and STATA; from GESIS
  • 2014 wave: dataset downloadable in SPSS and STATA; from GESIS 
  • The datasets can be found under Data & Documents
  • Registration required, free of charge

8. Online data analysis