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Consolidation of Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe

1. General description

    The Consolidation of Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe study is a comparative survey which focuses on attitudes towards democracy and system change in 14 former communist and socialist countries. The survey consists of two waves, carried out between 1990-1992 and 1998-2001. 

2. Survey type

  • Cross-national
  • Longitudinal, cross-sectional design with waves between 1990-1992 and 1998-2001
  • Representative national samples, ≥ 18 years of age
  • Single core questionnaire (no varying modules)

3. Participating countries

  • 14 Central and Eastern European countries
  • All countries: Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany (East and West), Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia (Krasnoyarsk), Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine

4. Topics

a. Socio-demographics

  • Respondent: age, sex, education, income, work and employment, marital status, neighbourhood, socio-economic status, community size, religion
  • Partner: work and employment
  • Parents: socio-economic status
  • Children:
  • Household:

b. General

    Political and social participation, media usage, perceptions of democracy, political and general values and attitudes, attitudes towards economy and system change, satisfaction with current and past government/regime, work and family, citizenship, trust, party preferences, voting behaviour, attitudes towards other countries

c. Regarding work and welfare

    Condition of various social groups, corruption, income differences, personal economic and financial situation, public safety, satisfaction with work, trust in trade unions, trust in work companions, government responsibilities (e.g. health care, job provision, living standards, income differences), government influence

5. Questionnaires available

    Codebook downloadable in PDF format; from GESIS (under Data & Documents)

6. Keyword search in questionnaires


7. Data available

  • Pooled dataset downloadable in SPSS and STATA from GESIS (under Data & Documents).
  • After registration, free of charge

8. Online data analysis