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Population Policy Acceptance Study , PPAS

    For details on all aspects of this database, see BiB

1. General description

    The Population Policy Acceptance Study is a European comparative study on the attitudes of people towards demographic changes and population-related policies and people's demographic behaviour. Two cross-sectional waves have been conducted: the first in the early 1990s and the second in 2003, in 9 and 14 European countries respectively.

2. Survey type

  • Cross-national
  • Representative national samples, ≥ 18 and ≤ 75 years of age
  • Longitudinal cross-sectional with waves in the early 1990s and 2003
  • Single core questionnaire with modules
  • Modules in 1991:
  • Ageing
  • Foreigners
  • Modules in 2000:
  • Ageing
  • Caring
  • Child care
  • Gender roles
  • Foreigners
  • Values in life

3. Participating countries

  • 9 to 14 countries per wave:
  • All countries of the 1991 wave: Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland
  • All countries of the 2000 wave: Austria, Belgium (Flanders), Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovenia

4. Topics

a. Socio-demographics

  • Respondent: Age, sex, education, work and employment, marital status, number of children, nationality
  • Partner: Nationality, employment, education
  • Parents:
  • Children:
  • Household: Composition, source of income, income

b. General

    Demographic changes, lifestyles, facilities, fertility behaviour, population related policies

c. Regarding work and welfare

    Government responsibility (regarding care for the elderly, housing, having children, participation of women in the labour force, health care, young people seeking jobs), expected population growth, composition of population, lifestyles (e.g. living together, marriage, single-parenthood), living arrangements, desire to have children, measures to facilitate having children, looking after and raising children (e.g. day care, maternity-leave arrangements, allowances, flexible working hours), effect of policies on decision to have children, allowance systems
  • Topics of the 1991 wave modules:
  • Ageing: views on elderly people, taking care of elderly people, policy on transition from work to retirement, financing of general old age pension schemes
  • Foreigners: number of foreigners in country, trends, illegal migrants, attitudes towards foreigners, policy measures related to migrants
  • Topics of the 2000 wave modules:
  • Ageing: ageing process, views regarding elderly people, care for the elderly, arrangements for care for the elderly, preferred living arrangements of older persons, financing of old-age pension schemes, government policy measures, retirement
  • Caring (also in the core questionnaire of the 1991 wave): best combination of job and children
  • Childcare: attitudes towards childcare, life with children
  • Foreigners: number of foreigners in country, trends, illegal migrants, attitudes towards foreigners, policy measures related to migrants, immigration, rights of immigrants
  • Gender roles: (changing) gender roles of men and women, organising income, having children, family life, household decision-making, government measures to support equal rights of men and women
  • Values in life (also in the core questionnaire the 1991 wave): importance in life of income, friends, self-fulfilment, satisfaction with job, having own income, effect of having children on values in life
  • Some of the questions are optional for the participating countries

5. Questionnaires available

    Yes, downloadable in PDF format; from Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungforschung (BiB)

6. Keyword search in questionnaires


7. Data available

  • Data are available on a CD-ROM attached to the following publication:
    Hoehn, C., Avramov, D., & Kotowska, I. E. (Eds.). (2008). People, Population Change and Policies. Lessons from the Population Policy Acceptance Study Vol.2: Demographic Knowledge - Gender - Ageing. Dordrecht: Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008.
  • For more information, see BiB

8. Online data analysis