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European Working Conditions Surveys , EWCS

    For details on all aspects of this database, see EWCS

1. General description

    The European Working Conditions Surveys are part of a large-scale, European cross-national, longitudinal survey research programme by the European Observatory of Working Life (EurWORK). It is designed to investigate and describe working conditions, the extent of and changes in the workforce and the quality of work. The EWCS started in 1990 and consists of six waves thus far.

2. Survey type

  • Cross-national
  • Longitudinal, with waves in 1990/1991, 1995/1996, 2000/2001, 2005, 2010 and 2015
  • Representative national samples, ≥ 15 years of age
  • Single core questionnaire (no varying modules, but the questionnaire is extended every wave)

3. Participating countries

  • 12 to 35 European countries, depending on wave:
  • 1991 wave: EU-12
    All countries: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom
  • 1996 wave: EU-15
    All countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom
  • 2000/2001 wave: EU-15 and Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Norway, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia and Turkey
    All countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom
  • 2005 wave: EU-27 and Croatia, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey
    All countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom
  • 2010 wave: EU-27 and Albania, Croatia, Kosovo, Montenegro, Norway, FYR Macedonia and Turkey
    All countries: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Kosovo, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, FYR Macedonia, Malta, Montenegro, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom
  • 2015 wave: EU-28 and Albania, FYR Macedonia, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland and Turkey
    All countries: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, FYR Macedonia, Malta, Montenegro, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom

4. Topics

a. Socio-demographics

  • Respondent: age, sex, education, income, work and employment status, marital status, nationality
  • Partner: age, sex, work and employment status
  • Parents: age, sex, work and employment status
  • Children: age, sex, work and employment status
  • Household: composition

b. General


    c. Regarding work and welfare

      Flexible work, work autonomy, working conditions, working time, work obligations, work-life balance, work pressure, training, harassment and discrimination on the work-floor, health and safety, absenteeism, job satisfaction, remuneration types

    5. Questionnaires available

    6. Keyword search in questionnaires

      No

    7. Data available

    • Data downloadable per wave; from UK Data Service 
    • After registration, free of charge
    • For more information on registration and access; see UK Data Service

    8. Online data analysis

    • Online webtabulator for descriptives, frequency tables and regression analyses; at Nesstar 
    • Free of charge, registration required
    • Online data visualisation for the 2010 wave; at Eurofound
    • Per country and pooled, by age, employment status, gender, main activity and type of occupation
    • Free of charge, no registration required